Systemic Planning

Contents

1 SYSTEMIC THINKING, COMPLEXITY AND PLANNING

1

The nature of thinking in general 2, Classifying complexity 3, Detail complexity 7, Dynamic complexity 11, Preference complexity 13, Categories of problems 17, What is systems science? 22, And what is systemic thinking? 26, The basic ideas of systemic planning 31

 

 

 

2 THE THREE WAVES OF SYSTEMS SCIENCE

39

The first wave: systems as reality 40, The second wave: systems as constructs 42, The third wave: systems as representations 49, Systems science in a context of current major research approaches 54

 

 

 

3 COMMUNICATION AND FUTURE-ORIENTED ACTION

63

Planning as communicative action 66, From optimisation to learning 77, How to deal with causality or the lack of same 83, A new view of planning 87

 

 

 

4 THE EMERGING HYPERCOMPLEX SOCIETY AND SYSTEMIC PLANNING

101

The contours of the hypercomplex society 102, Contingency as planning condition 111, Planning, politics and power 117, The role of the systemic planner 125

 

 

 

EPILOGUE: ON SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND COMPLEXITY

139

Appendix 1: The SCOPE framework

147

Appendix 2: The COSIMA model

169

Appendix 3: Systems science and complexity: Some proposals for future development

199

Bibliography

 

221

Index

 

233